For an introduction to mindfulness meditation that you can practice on your own, download the UCLA Mindful App (iTunes / Google Play), stream, or download the guided meditations below. Recorded by UCLA MARC's Director of Mindfulness Education, Diana Winston.
Meditation translations were made possible by the Center for Health Services and Society, Jane and Terry Semel Institute for Neuroscience and Human Behavior in collaboration with Together-for-Wellness, a resource-rich website that is part of the CalHOPE initiative funded by FEMA.
English meditation and original content by MARC's Director for Mindfulness Education, Diana Winston; Armenian translations by Helen Setyan; Cantonese translations by Lifen Chen; Farsi translations by Mitra Manesh; Filipino translations by Imee Contreras; Hindi translations by Manish Bansal; Japanese translations by Noriko Uchida; Korean translations by Jooli Park; Mandarin Chinese translations by Jingjing Zhu Ph.D; Russian translations by Inguna Reinfelde; Spanish translations by Eric Lopez Ph.D.; Vietnamese translations by Vy V. Le.; American Sign Language by Rachel Postovoit.
Why do people become addicted to alcohol and other drugs? How effective is addiction treatment? What makes certain substances so addictive? The Butler Center for Research at the Hazelden Betty Ford Foundation investigates these and other questions and publishes its scientific findings in a variety of alcohol and drug addiction research papers and reports.
Hazelden Betty Ford's Thought for the Day offers daily meditations for people in recovery or affected by addiction to alcohol or other drugs. Browse daily passages from our most popular meditation books to find your inspiration today.
Attention-Deficit-Hyperactivity-Disorder (ADHD) is, with a prevalence of 5 %, a highly common childhood disorder, and has severe impact on the lives of youngsters and their families. Medication is often the treatment of choice, as it currently is most effective. However, medication has only short-term effects, treatment adherence is often low and most importantly; medication has serious side effects. Therefore, there is a need for other interventions for youngsters with ADHD. Mindfulness training is emerging as a potentially effective training for children and adolescents with ADHD. The aim of this study is to compare the (cost) effectiveness of mindfulness training to the (cost) effectiveness of methylphenidate in children with ADHD on measures of attention and hyperactivity/impulsivity.
This study will inform mental health care professionals and health insurance companies about the clinical and cost effectiveness of mindfulness training for children and adolescents with ADHD and their parents compared to the effectiveness of methylphenidate. Limitations and several types of bias that are anticipated for this study are discussed.
In sum, the international guidelines for treatment of ADHD, supported by the current knowledge about the effectiveness of methylphenidate compared to the somewhat more ambivalent evidence of the effectiveness of other treatment options, suggest that methylphenidate for children with ADHD is, to date, still the first-line treatment . Moreover, looking at the cost effectiveness of medication versus behavioral treatment, medication also seems to be the preferred option as it was estimated that medical costs per child with ADHD is $1079 during a period of 14 months, whereas costs for behavioral treatment per child with ADHD is $7176 during that same period of time . Nevertheless, concerns about the frequency of methylphenidate prescriptions and its possible disadvantages are rising increasingly [8, 31]. These concerns are with good reason, given the literature on the substantial limitations of (stimulant) medication for ADHD. First, usage of stimulant medication may result in side effects such as insomnia, loss of appetite, abdominal pain, headache, anxiety, stress, and nervousness [14, 20, 28, 31, 32]. In the MTA study  64.1 % of the children suffered from one or more mild, moderate, or severe side effects. Second, stimulant medication works only short-term and symptoms return once medication is stopped [20, 33, 34]. Therefore, children with ADHD must continue the use of medication for extended periods of time in order to maintain the beneficial effects . Third, as previously stated, about 70 % of children with ADHD show a symptomatic response to methylphenidate, however, up to 30 % of the children do not benefit from methylphenidate at all [17, 18, 36, 37]. When other pharmacological treatments for ADHD are systematically administered, still 10 % of the children do not respond to any of the medications . Fourth, treatment fidelity is often low with nonadherence rates between 13.2 to 64 % in people with ADHD . Nonadherence is greater for short-acting stimulants compared to long-acting stimulants . Nonadherence may be due to inadequate supervision including delayed or missed doses, but also because patients may forget or refuse to take medication . The most prescribed stimulants are short-acting, including methylphenidate, and require intake of 2 or 3 times a day. As a consequence children need to take medication in public, for example at school, which may be embarrassing or (socially) stigmatizing [7, 39]. Fifth, stimulant medication is a contraindication for people with schizophrenia, hyperthyroidism, cardiac arrhythmias, angina pectoris, and glaucoma. Furthermore, extra caution needs to be taken in case of hypertension, depression, tics, epilepsy, anorexia, autism spectrum disorders, severe mental retardation, or a history of drug abuse or alcoholism . Sixth, the safety of medication for children with ADHD is not fully known [31, 40]. Whereas short-term side effects may be reversible when medication is stopped, little is known about long-term side effects. There is limited literature of the impact of long-term medication use on growth, blood pressure, heart rate, and the occurrence of suicidal, psychotic, and manic symptoms . Some studies found that children with ADHD who take medication for several years show reduced growth and weight compared to their peers . The difference in growth, however, seems to attenuate over time and there is debate about whether the ultimate adult growth is affected. Seventh, the effectiveness of long-term use of methylphenidate is not fully known . Studies on the effectiveness of ADHD medication show robust effects on symptom reduction and other life functioning domains up to 2 years later . So far, little is known about the effectiveness beyond this period. However, results of the MTA study 8-year follow-up data failed to demonstrate the benefits of medication treatment beyond 2 years for most of the children .
Because of the above named limitations and uncertainties, children and their parents may not view medication as a considerable option. They are not open to try medication but would like to receive non-pharmacological treatment . To conclude, medication is worldwide the primary treatment of choice for children with ADHD, but has enormous disadvantages, and psychosocial treatments, so far, failed to demonstrate sufficient efficacy. Therefore, there is a large demand for alternative treatment options. Mindfulness training became increasingly popular in the last decade, with studies showing promising results in this burgeoning field, and is for many reasons a potential contender in the treatment for childhood ADHD.
The study of Bögels et al.  included 14 clinically referred adolescents (aged 11 to 18) suffering from externalizing disorders and their parents, of which two adolescents had a primary ADHD diagnosis and another two had co-morbid ADHD. The adolescents followed an early version of the 8-week MYmind mindfulness training with a parallel mindful parenting training for their parents (Bögels SM. MYmind: a mindfulness training for children with ADHD and their parents. In preperation). Adolescents and their parents were measured at waitlist, pre-test, post-test, and at 8-week follow-up. After the training, adolescents reported a substantial improvement on personal goals, internalizing, externalizing, and attention problems, happiness, and mindful awareness, and scored substantially higher on the d2 Test of Attention. In turn parents reported at post-test an improvement in their adolescents goals, externalizing and attention problems, self-control, attunement to others, and withdrawal. These effects were maintained at 8-week follow-up.
A multicenter RCT with follow-up measurements is used to measure the effects of mindfulness training versus the effects of methylphenidate. After enrolment in the study participants sign informed consent and are randomized to the mindfulness arm or the methylphenidate arm. After randomization, participants fill in the pre-test (T1) and start the treatment they were assigned to. In the mindfulness arm participants receive 8 sessions of mindfulness training (1 session per week) and in the methylphenidate arm participants start the first 8 weeks of methylphenidate intervention. After those 8 weeks, participants fill in the post-test (T2). Subsequently, for participants in the mindfulness arm, 8 weeks without training follow after T2, and receive a booster session at the end of those 8 weeks. Participants in the methylphenidate arm continue taking methylphenidate for another 8 weeks. Four months (T3) and ten months (T4) after participants started their treatment, follow-up measurements are planned in order to determine whether training effects are long lasting. Between T3 and T4, a 6 month-period passes in which participants do not have to be in treatment, but they are free to consider other treatment options. Thus, participants in the methylphenidate arm can decide to continue their medication, change medication, stop medication, or to remain without treatment, or get enrolled in mindfulness training or another intervention. Participants in the mindfulness arm can decide to remain without treatment, start medication or participate in another intervention. See Fig. 1 for a flow chart of recruitment and study procedures. 2b1af7f3a8