Machine learning is a rapidly evolving scientific and engineering field. Many newly developed techniques and algorithms produce promising results in distinguishing between two or more classes of objects, but it is often not clear how to interpret and use the results and how to validate them in a technical context. This paper presents a basic introduction to machine learning using a simple dataset and a very basic set of machine-learning techniques. We explain the meaning of four measures of the quality of a machine-learning classifier: accuracy, precision, recall, and F-measure. We also consider how to define these measures within the context of a technical problem. Given these definitions, we then discuss how accuracy, precision, recall, and F-measure can be compared across datasets or classifiers. We conclude with an example application in the context of the forensic science community.
In a previous era, anatomists and anthropologists would use 'landmarks' (ie, anatomical and anthropological observations) to identify, define, and compare species. In a similar manner, computer vision algorithms, such as those used in the forensic context, may beA VLT is a Video Telecast for Learning and Teaching (VTLT). A VLT consists of one or more video sources such as a laser disk, an interactive movie, an online video file, a digital still, or a computer input device corresponding to a video source. A VLT also usually includes a control device which typically includes a remote control and a micro television (TV). The control device allows the user to select the source and controls the play of the video source, and the TV is used to display the video source by the user. Many options can be made available to users of VLTs, such as sound, color contrast, and volume. The selection of a particular selection of video parameters may require more or less time than desired, depending on the user's experience, skill, and patience. For example, adding color to video sources may take a significant amount of time, especially if the video source is a high-definition video source. Many educational institutes are collaborating in the creation of their own VLTs. Some of these VLTs use a VMT. The VMT is a video control board. The VMT is a platform to integrate video sources and control devices such as televisions, video tape recorders (VTR), laser disk players, personal computers (PC), digital cameras, and others. d2c66b5586